Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

Preparation, Characterization and In vitro Biological Activity of Soyasapogenol B Loaded onto Functionalized Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 4 ]


Ahmed A. Haroun*, Hala A. Amin and Sameh H. Abd El-Alim   Pages 364 - 372 ( 9 )


Background: Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a drug delivery system, can avoid the need for solvents and preventing drug precipitation in aqueous solution. Soyasapogenol B (SSB) acts as an important therapeutic agent owing to its numerous reported biological activities. Hence, this work deals with preparation and characterization of SBB loaded onto functionalized MWCNTs with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and/or chitosan.

Method: SSB was immobilized onto functionalized MWCNTs using miniemulsion technique. Moreover, niosomes were utilized to encapsulate the prepared systems. The formulations were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution analysis. In vitro release profiles of loaded SSB particles were carried out and kinetics of release were also studied. In vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared materials was examined and evaluated by SRB assay using different human cell lines such as normal melanocytes (HFB4), and carcinoma breast and liver (MCF7 and HepG2, respectively) in comparison with the standard doxorubicin.

Results: SSB loaded materials exhibited successful encapsulation in niosomes, resulting in sustainable in drug release. Study of kinetics of release revealed presence of several complex factors affecting SSB release. Mathematical processing of the in vitro release data showed that the release of SSB from niosomal formulations obeyed more than one model. The second order and Higuchi’s models were the most fitting models in case of presence of chitosan or TEOS, respectively. While, all formulations exhibited low cytotoxic properties on all tested cell lines.

Conclusion: FTIR, particle size and TEM analysis confirmed that SSB was successfully loaded onto functionalized MWCNTs. Moreover, the different niosome formulations based on functionalized MWCNTs were prepared with sustainable SSB release in. The cytotoxicity could be minimized in case of chitosan and TEOS functionalization.


Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, TEOS, chitosan, in vitro release kinetics, soyasapogenol B, in vitro cytotoxicity.


Chemical Ind. Res. Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth Street, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Chemistry of Natural & Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth Street, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Pharmaceutical Technology Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth Street, 12622 Dokki, Giza

Graphical Abstract:

Read Full-Text article